Today we're going to Sardinia.
Sardinia is a large island west of the Italian Peninsula. Human occupation of the island dates to at least the Upper Paleolithic. Neolithic and Bronze Age peoples built stone constructions on the island, some of which were "megalithic" in that they made use of very large stones. I'm not an expert on Mediterranean prehistory, but a quick review of information online makes it clear there is a lot of variability in the rock architecture of Sardinia. The megalithic traditions on Sardinia overlap with those in other parts of Europe in terms of their timing and some of their architectural elements, but also have aspects that make them distinctive.
There is a current folk belief in ancient giants on Sardinia that appears to have a lot in common with the situation in North America. Just about everything I know about the belief in giants on Sardinia I am basing on this episode of the program Forbidden History, a 2014 series (produced in the UK) that says it "uncovers the truth behind great myths, conspiracy theories, ancient treasures, lost civilisations and war time secrets." Like similar programs produced in the US, much of the emphasis is on travel and making the host appear intrepid. But this episode, at least, does reveal some interesting things about the belief in giants in Sardinia.
The only purported physical evidence of the remains of giants in Sardinia that I have come across is teeth. I found four examples: two from the Forbidden History episode and two promoted by a UFO enthusiast trying to insert extraterrestrial visitors into Sardinia's prehistoric past. In the first two of these cases I discuss, it is asserted that the teeth are human, but we are not permitted to actually see the teeth in detail. Based on what is shown, the teeth do not appear to me to be human. In the other two cases, just like the "replica" of the Denisovan tooth shown by Search for the Lost Giants, the teeth don't look anything like human teeth - anyone who knows anything about teeth wouldn't mistake them for being human in thousand years.
The first tooth is shown to us on Forbidden History (beginning about 24:00 into the episode). The host waves the tooth around for a while, explaining that it was given to him by a farmer who refused to be interviewed because "he'd been warned off talking to us . . . we're not sure by whom or why." The farmer claims it is a giant's tooth.
The screenshot to the left shows the best view we are given of the tooth. We never get to see the occlusal surface (the part of of the tooth that comes into contact with other teeth), so all we have to go are the shape and proportions of the crown and the roots and the fact that there are three roots.
In the human dentition, the first and second maxillary molars (the grinding teeth on the upper jaw) are the only teeth that routinely have three roots. Sometimes mandibular molars have three roots instead of the usual two. Anyway, based on what we are shown, it appears to be unlike any human molar tooth I have ever seen. The crown appears rather tall, and the proportions and the crown and the roots just don't look right to me. I suspect anyone with a rudimentary working knowledge of comparative dental anatomy would be able to quickly identify this tooth to the family level (i.e., whether it belonged to a cow, a deer, a pig, etc.) by looking at the cusps. Maybe that's why the TV show doesn't actually let us see the occlusal surface.
The second tooth (actually a set of teeth) is also shown to us by Forbidden History (beginning about 30:00 into the episode). The host interviews a dentist who claims to have analyzed a piece of bone containing three "very big molars" reportedly recovered from one of the "giant's tombs." We are later told that the actual specimen is no longer available, having mysteriously disappeared after being given to the university in Cagliari. So we are left with the dentist's recollections and a video taken while he was analyzing the specimen.
The bone fragment appears to be part of a mandible. We don't get to see the fragment with a scale (or in a good quality photograph), but the dentist states that one of these teeth was 30 mm and another was 35 mm (presumably those are mesial-distal length measurements). What we are shown of the video is so poor that it is hard to tell anything about the teeth - the light is bright and most of the detail is washed out. I messed with the contrast in Photoshop to try to bring out some of detail in the cusps of the teeth but it wasn't a great improvement. The teeth appear to be bunodont (crowns that have rounded or conical cusps), which you find in the molars of omnivores such as humans, pigs, and bears. Since we never get a good look at the cusps, it is hard to say what creature these teeth belonged to. Based on looking at some publications on European fossil pigs (such as this one) I'd say a pig is a reasonable guess. Again, it's hard to fathom why there is no single good, well-lit, scaled photo of this specimen that could be shown. If I was given a piece of evidence that I thought would change history, I'm pretty sure I'd take a picture. I'm certainly not buying this as a human jaw based on what I saw on Forbidden History.
The third tooth is touted as a "giant's tooth" on the website of UFO enthusiast Paola Harris. It's nothing of the sort: it's an animal tooth that very clearly shows a pattern of enamel ridges looping around the occlusal surface and protruding from the dentine. This is called a "lophodont" or "secodont" tooth and is found in a wide variety of herbivores, including horses, rhinos, tapirs, cows, and deer. Humans do not have these kinds of teeth.
The image of the tooth I show here is cropped and adjusted to bring out the cusp pattern more clearly. I don't know exactly what creature we're looking at here, but I can tell you with 100 percent confidence that this is not a human tooth. Someone with better skills in comparative dental anatomy will be able to identify this easily from the photo.
Paola Harris' website also features a photo titled "giant jawbone" that is apparently supposed to show the jawbone of a human giant. It is part of a mandible with portions of three teeth visible. The bone and the teeth are in poor condition, but the high quality photograph makes it apparent that the specimen is not human. The morphology of what's left of the teeth suggests, again, some kind of large herbivore.
Here's a tip for all you "truth seekers" out there: learn something about your subject matter, or ask someone who already knows something. Dentists and physicians are not your best bet, either: neither typically needs to recognize and identify bones and teeth outside of the human body (why would they?), and neither usually has even basic training in how to do that. Variation in animal teeth has been studied for a long time, and there are plenty of archaeologists, anatomists, and paleontologists who know a lot about the teeth of various animals as well as the teeth of humans. These people, unlike dentists, physicians, and coroners, can recognize and identify remains that are not human because they are (1) actually trained to first ask the question "is it human?" and (2) equipped with practical knowledge of how to answer that question.
I have nothing against farmers, journalists, TV producers, dentists, and UFO enthusiasts, but I do not trust their determinations of what's a human tooth and what's not. And neither should you. If this is the best evidence giant enthusiasts can offer for Sardinia . . . it's probably time to move on.